PROJECT NAME MERU GK PRISON DTS DATE VISITED 16th -17th Sep 2010
PROJECT LOCATION EASTERN PROVINCE-KENYA CONSTRUCTION PERIOD June 2007-May 2008
FUNDING SOURCE EU, GTZ, SIDA, Partners GOK,
Name of Contractor GRANITE CONSTRUCTION CO TIME IN USE From May 2010 after Repairs
CONSULTANT Wakala Moses Contact email Wakala.firstname.lastname@example.org
Management contact Mr. Charles Mutembei Email email@example.com
Meru Water Company Mr Moses Njiiri
Objective and Motivation of Project
The objectives of the project were mainly
• Introduce the concept of on-site treatment and utilization of the treated waste in agriculture.
• To boost agricultural production thus increasing food security as a result of treated effluent reuse.
• Improve sanitation in prison
• Reduce the cost of firewood by use of biogas produced during anaerobic treatment.
The main motivation of the project was to increase access to good sanitation to all, as per the millennium development goal number 7.
LOCATION AND CONDITION
Meru GK Prison is a government institution located in eastern province in Meru County and about 220 KM on Nairobi Isiolo road. It has over 1200 inmates and over 300 staff in the 15 hectare compound. The prison is on a sloping ground and is supplied with water from the Meru Water company. The prison management realized the potential of the ecological sanitation through a sensitization from the EPP staff. The prison has a big problem of high firewood consumption for cooking the prisoners’ meals. The prison had also high sewage treatment bills from the treatment plant. These issues combined made the prison management to look into possibilities of adopting new technology from ecosan. Initially all the waste generated from the prison was treated by the municipal sewer. The new technology aimed at treating all the waste in the digester and baffle reactor and reusing the treated effluent in the prison farm as irrigation water and fertilizer. The product of anaerobic decomposition, biogas, also called methane was to be used in the kitchen as source of energy.
Currently as on the date of visit, the digester is being fed by four toilets and the cowshed with two zero-grazed animals. There was no gas production as a result of leakage at the neck seal. This was an opportunity to train the prison officers on the sealing and daily maintenance of the treatment plant. All the treatment components from checking seemed to be working well.
Initially, all the waste from the male prison cells and kitchen was connected to the digester. The digester developed a structural failure and also an over-flow within fewer days than specified in design was noticed. These two reasons led to closure of the entire system and deviation of the main prison waste back to municipal sewer. It has been left like this for almost a half a year. On the visitation day, it was noticed that the service pipes laid earlier connecting the staff toilets and the digester had clogged with surface run-off mad. This must be opened during the re-connection.
It was also realized that one of the water-traps manholes near the kitchen was coved with soil completely and could not be established if it was in a working condition. This is an urgent maintenance duty to be done by the prison officers as the gas was to be used in the kitchen soon after sealing the neck.
The main challenge in the project is the excess water flowing non-stop from the cells toilets and kitchen. This water seems to be more than the design parameters and it pushes all the waste out of the treatment plant before the end of the design retention time. With this happening, the quality of the effluent is bad and thus causing pollution to the underground water.
I highly recommend a design to reduce the amount of water from the waste before it is discharged to the digester. This could mean that the shower water and any excess kitchen water can be separated before it flows out for treatment. The grey water and kitchen water could be treated in the aeration ponds in the prison while the rest to undergo anaerobic treatment.
The second water trap near the VIP toilet should be checked and all the soil removed on the cover. It could be important to raise the manhole walls to ensure its accessibility.
The blocked service pipes from staff line should be checked and all mad removed before connection to the digester again.
Meanwhile before other connections, it is better for the system to be tested as it is with 8 staff toilets connected and the cowshed. This will help the prison to establish the output and efficiency of the digester after the previous repairs.
Cowshed with two cows feeding the digester. Baffle Reactor in Meru GoK prison done by Ecosan Promotion Project
Note: All photos in the report are taken by M. Wakala during site visit (Consultant)
PROJECT NAME MERU GK PRISON DTS DATE VISITED 16th -17th Sep 2010
Monitoring and Post Evaluating EcoSans in Nyanza and Western provinces (Field work for Master Thesis research on Ecological Sanitation)
Kachan Primary School is a public school sponsored by the government. It is situated in Lower Nyakach Division with a population of 292 pupils.
This is a government sponsored school located in Nyabondo, Upper Nyakach Division. It is a mixed secondary school with girls and boys. Majority of the people here are Christians. They practice small scale farming, small businesses and brick making as economic activities.
Kendu Muslim Secondary School is a government sponsored school located in Kendu Bay Town near Lake Victoria. The soil is mainly black cotton soil making the area unsuitable for digging of pit latrines.
The results of an ex-post evaluation of an EcoSan Promotion Project.
|Inspecting the texture of the fertilisers in a dehydration vault.|
|Right section of the maize received fertilizer from UDDTs.|
|User inserted pipes in the dehydration chamber leading to an offset pit.|
|An UDDT used as a pit latrine.|
The complete report can be downloaded from SuSanA Library.
Screenshoot of on discussion post on peepoo bags in Kenya
Posted by Carola Israel according to information provided by Moses Wakala Ecosan Expert from Kenya (firstname.lastname@example.org). (02 February 2012)
The purpose of the contract was to select at least five schools that have Ecosan toilets. The schools must be using the facilities and the products in some way. The consultant was also to move around visiting the school with the Finnish Master student who was doing her field work in Ecological sanitation. A number of schools were selected in Western region that were presumed to be doing well. Some of the selected schools were privately funded while others were funded by GIZ, SIDA and EU in the ended Ecosan Promotion Project.
The consultant has gone ahead to identify new players in the field of ecological sanitation and documentation of good practices amongst all the visited sites. He has gone ahead to establish basic reasons why some schools begin well during the first use of the ecosan toilets and later on dump the whole idea of ecological sanitation to use of pit latrines. A number of reasons have been outlined in the report.
The consultant, being much aware of the task given, begun with the formulation of selection criteria to be used to find the site to be visited. This was done through physical site pre-visits and direct phone conversations to establish their availability for the interview and the status of the facilities to be visited. Some schools were however visited without prior notice due to schools closure and lack of contacts.
Actual work of monitoring was done together with the student by physical examination of the facilities and through interviews with filling of the already prepared questionnaire.
Upgrading of skills learned
During the site visits, the consultant observed how the beneficiary community was utilising the facilities. A number of gaps were identified in the usage and as a result, the consultant planned for refresher trainings on operation and maintenance. This was sometimes done instantly on the same day of visit, or was planned later.
The following schools were visited during the consultancy period:
1. Kakichuma R.C primary school GIZ funded ecosan toilets
2. Kitale Ndogo Primary school GIZ funded
3. Mumias Muslim Primary School GIZ Funded
4. Khaimba Primary School GIZ Funded
5. Eldoret Education Centre Private ownership
6. Chief Mutsembi Primary school Private
7. Hirumbi Primary School.
Kakichuma Primary School
This school is located in a rocky surrounding. The head-teacher who received the project funded by GIZ is still present. He is well motivated and this has been transferred to the whole school. Most of the pit latrines were shallow and could get filled up easily. They are now happy because they get urine fertilizer for their young tree seedlings planted around the compound. They are using the urine fertilizer on bananas within the school compound. The toilet is well maintained with no smell nor flies. This is their motivation.
Most of the ash is from the school kitchen. At times they send some pupils to bring ash from home. The whole sanitation is done by the health club, teacher on duty and the sanitation teacher. The school has done some repairs and painting of the toilets using the Repair and maintenance kitty from the government. Their biggest challenge is getting water for hand wash during the dry season.
|Health Club members infront of the school ecosan toilet in Kakichuma Primary|
|The researcher with the head teacher, sanitation teacher and pupils in an interview|
The school has been using the urine on the school farm and it has produced good results as from the Head-teacher. The school’s main reason for doing well in hygiene is due to regular organised meetings by the sanitation teacher who also conducts trainings to new pupils at the beginning of every term. They have a constant supply of ash from the school kitchen and pupils bring the commodity once in a while when demand is high. We visited the school when it had just opened and many sections were not yet cleaned. The consultant found the toilet in use and some boys preferred Ecosan toilet to normal pit latrine due to its lack of smell.
It was also observed that the school had dug some pits to construct ordinary pit latrine because there was no squatting pan available and the ones available in the market are too expensive to purchase.
|Front side of the staff toilet in Mumias Muslim Primary school.|
This was the first school ever to be funded by GIZ in Ecosan toilet construction. The initial training on construction, usage and maintenance was done in this school by the Ecosan team in Kenya. The school has been doing so well in managing the toilets. This was brought about by the initial motivation of getting a resource from human waste which was otherwise useless from cultural beliefs. The pupils like using the toilets because of their odourless and safety.
The current status is slowly deteriorating due to new teachers coming who seems to have little knowledge on Ecosan toilets and as such little motivation to the pupils.
|Inside the toilet in Khaimba Primary school showing ash, squatting pan and finished toilet paper.|
|Handwash facility at Khaimba Primary school|
|Four Ecosan toilets funded by GIZ in Kitale Ndogo Primary|
|Inside the toilet at Kitale ndogo with blocked urine pipe due to ash spillage.|
The first chambers of all the toilets are now full. Second chambers are being used at the moment. The school is using the urine in the vegetable farm mixed together with irrigation water. Many changes as a result of using the products can be seen in the school including health live fence and flowers fed by urine fertilizer. Many people have visited this school to learn about the technology.
|Pupils in EEC visiting their Ecosan toilet with Hand-wash infront.|
|Inside of the toilet in EEC with ash container and instruction chart.|
|Urine store constructed by the school with urine containers. Urine is kept here for two weeks before it is used in farm for irrigation. Filled up Jericans are labelled when they are put in the store.|
|The consultant sampling the decomposed faecal matter to see its quality|
|Urine being mixed with irrigation water to be used in vegetable farm as fertilizer in drip irrigation.|
Topics covered were among others, use, maintenance, reuse of urine and decomposed faecal matter, advantages of Ecosan toilet and general hygiene like hand washing.
|One of the Ecosan experts in Training at Hirumbi Primary school.|
General Challenges for each school
The following were observed as general challenges in most of the Ecosan schools visited. Regular blockage of the urine pipes by ash. Pressure on the existing few facilities as GIZ was only funding 4 doors. Lack of constant training in schools to the users leading to misuse. The squatting pans are not easily available for further construction.
- Regular blockage of the urine pipes by ash.
- Pressure on the existing few facilities as GIZ was only funding 4 doors.
- Lack of constant training in schools to the users leading to misuse.
- The squatting pans are not easily available for further construction.
A number of schools are now looking for different funding from different organization to construct their own toilets.
This was seen in Western Kenya in Kakamega where two three primary schools are now having the Ecosan toilets funded by other organization like CDF etc.
This was witnessed in three schools around Kakamega where the schools are soliciting funds from other sources to construct Ecosan toilets. Many private schools are currently making inquiry on how to have similar facilities. This means that many people in the community are now understanding the
economic importance of the technology. The cost of an Ecosan toilet has not been an excuse in the society looking at the long term benefits of Ecosan toilets. A simple pit latrine costs half the price of one Ecosan toilet in the surrounding.
School sanitation and public place sanitation is a big challenge to the community. This has been as a result of negligence and attitude from the users. Many people have good toilets at their homes but most public toilets are left un attended to all the times. This has been the case for so many years in the region. In schools, sanitation condition has always been depended on the school priorities. For example when the school administration values hygiene, then the school toilets will be well maintained. Ecosan toilets have been said to be difficult to maintain in public schools especially where small kids are using the facilities. This is as a result of constant blockages of urine pipes with ash. Good Ecosan working schools have put a caretaker to be in charge of the facilities. This person is responsible for day to day maintenance of the toilets at a fee. Public Ecosanitation is therefore only possible when there is somebody in charge. The same caretaker is in charge of regular training of the users on proper usage.
The school routine should emphasize on good hygiene in the school. This topic of sanitation has been put on some well performing Ecosan schools as a lesson taught every week in classes. This is a constant reminder to the pupils of proper toilet usage and care. It has also been extended to the environmental/ Sanitation/ Health clubs which also offers similar topics in their meetings.
Some schools had a good start-up in Ecosan toilet use and good practices were late noticed after some tome. This was noted in the region as some schools expected to be doing well had deteriorated to poor hygiene standards. It was observed that it was due to change of the responsible teachers who received the projects. The new teachers may not be well motivated about the project and or at times with poor knowledge on the O & M in Ecosan facilities.
Future GIZ intervention should major most in trainings and capacity building. This should be done together will all the stakeholders so that there is no time there is technology vacuum in the schools or community. The
education ministry can also promote this type of sanitation in all the schools that needs it. This may include flooding regions, rocky areas, unstable soil area and areas with high water table or limited space for toilet construction. This has been done in some private schools that are rushing now to acquire the plastic squatting pan. GIZ will come in handy to try and avil this squatting pan in large supply. At the moment, it is the only challenge among the schools that are turning to Ecosan.
The school sanitation project in the DARAD education centre in Ukunda (see blog entry by Julia Seitz from March 2011) is now completed. Engineers Without Borders Germany (regional division Aachen) have facilitated the construction of a school toilet block with separate facilities for girls (4 urine diversion dehydration toilets (UDDTs)) and boys (three urinals and three UDDTs) as well as one barrier-free toilet (single vault Wonderloo) for persons with special needs.
The toilets are maintained by school staff. Staff members and the newly formed students' "Health Club" share the responsibility of explaining new students and guests how to properly use the new toilets. Water for the handwashing facilities is provided by a rainwater harvesting system.
|School toilet with rainwater harvesting tanks|
|Training of school staff|
Despite the initial challenges Engineers without Borders have received very positive feedback from the students and teachers. Students of the new formed "Young Farmers Club" are now using the urine as fertilizer in the school gardens. The club members also exchange experiences with the local office of the Ministry of Agriculture in Likoni and have learned about “balcony farming”. In January 2012 the dried faeces from the chambers were removed for the first time and brought to nearby farmers.
|Gardening activities in the school|